Bellaria means ‘sweets, dainties’, and in these hard times Classics for All will try to lighten the mood and put a spring in the step by posting delicious extracts from ancient literature, the original text followed by a translation or translations, and very occasionally with explanatory notes.

Bellaria Index

2020

2 April - Bellaria I, Good Sex Award I

9 April - Bellaria II, Good Sex Award II

16 April – Bellaria III, Good Sex Award III

23 April -  Bellaria IV, Good Sex Award IV

30 April – Bellaria V, Good Sex Award V

7 May – Bellaria VI, Scenes From Suetonius I

14 May – Bellaria VII, Scenes From Suetonius II

21 May – Bellaria VIII, Scenes From Suetonius III

28 May – Bellaria IX, Scenes From Suetonius IV

4 June – Bellaria X, Scenes From Suetonius V

11 June – Bellaria XI, Artemidorus: The Interpretation of Dreams I

18 June – Bellaria XII, Artemidorus: The Interpretation of Dreams II

25 June – Bellaria XIII, Artemidorus: The Interpretation of Dreams III

2 July - Bellaria XIV, Artemidorus: The Interpretation of Dreams IV

9 July – Bellaria XV, Artemidorus: The Interpretation of Dreams V

16 July – Bellaria XVI, Martial I

23 July – Bellaria XVII, Martial II

30 July – Bellaria XVIII, Martial III

6 August - Bellaria XIX, Martial IV

13 August - Bellaria XX, Martial V

20 August - Bellaria XXI, Martial VI

27 August - Bellaria XXII, Colloquia I

3 September - Bellaria XXIII, Colloquia II

10 September - Bellaria XXIV, Colloquia III

17 September - Bellaria XXV, Colloquia IV

24 September - Bellaria XXVI, Colloquia V

1 October - Bellaria XXVII, Verse Composition

8 October - Bellaria XXVIII, Derivations I

15 October - Bellaria XXIX, Derivations II

22 October - Bellaria XXX, Derivations III

29 October - Bellaria XXXI, Derivations IV

5 November - Bellaria XXXII, Derivations V

12 November - Bellaria XXXIII, Medieval Latin I

19 November - Bellaria XXXIV, Medieval Latin II

26 November - Bellaria XXXV, Medieval Latin III

3 December - Bellaria XXXVI, Medieval Latin IV

10 December - Bellaria XXXVII, Medieval Latin V

17 December - Bellaria XXXVIII, Christmas Special 2020

2021

14 January - Bellaria XXXIX, The Sydenham Latin Verse Challenge

21 January - Bellaria XL, Pliny the Elder I

28 January - Bellaria XLI, Pliny the Elder II

4 February - Bellaria XLII, Pliny the Elder III

11 February - Bellaria XLIII, Pliny the Elder IV

18 February - Bellaria XLIV, Pliny the Elder V

25 February - Bellaria XLV, Lucian I

4 March - Bellaria XLVI, Lucian II

11 March - Bellaria XLVII, Lucian III

18 March - Bellaria XLVIII, Lucian IV

25 March - Bellaria XLIX, Lucian V

1 April - Bellaria L, Lucian VI

Bellaria L

1 April

Our 50th Bellaria takes a look at Lucian's version of the judgment of Paris, which all began with Zeus being informed that, if the sea-nymph Thetis married a god, their son would replace Zeus as king of the gods. Unenthusiastic about this outcome, Zeus arranged for her to marry the mortal Peleus (the resultant offspring being, of course, Achilles). But the goddess Eris (‘Strife’) had not been invited to the wedding. So she lobbed among the guests a golden apple, inscribed τῇ καλλίστῃ ‘to the most beautiful’. Aphrodite, Hera and Athena all laid claim to it and demanded that Zeus decide the winner.

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Bellaria XLIX

25 March

In this very contemporary dialogue, Lucian pictures the young man Klonarion (‘little twig’—make what you like of that) discussing with his hetaira Leaina (‘lioness’) rumours about what happened between her and the wealthy woman Megilla (from—note—Lesbos) and a female friend of Megilla’s called Demonassa from Corinth (famous for its immorality) who was ‘in the same business’. The relationship, as it emerges, also involves gift-giving, as it would with a male lover. In other words, it is a typically amusing Lucianic inversion of the normal teasing male-female hetaira relationship, leaving the hapless Klonarion begging for more, as usual, thought for a quite different reason…

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gathering of the gods

Bellaria XLVIII

18 March

In this dialogue between Zeus and Hera, Lucian imagines the married couple discussing the fate of Ixion, who married Dia, but did not want to pay for the bridal gifts which he had promised her father for her hand in marriage. So he slaughtered her father by luring him into a burning pit. For reasons best known to himself, Zeus forgave him and even invited him to join the gods’ feasts on Olympus.

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Bellaria XLVII

11 March

In these dialogues Lucian makes fun of Greek myth, turning gods into humans subject to ordinary, everyday human feelings—here on the subject of the sea-nymph Galateia’s love for the Cyclops Polyphemus and her sister Doris’s reaction to it.

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Stone carving on Trajan's column

Bellaria XLVI

4 March

In this craftily composed ‘memory’, Lucian describes how his family prescribed for him a career in the family business as a sculptor and how that fell apart at his first attempt. The night after his failure and subsequent thrashing, he tells us that he had a dream of two women, fighting for his attention: one was Sculpture, the other Education. They each make their pitch for him, and Education wins.

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Bust of Lucian

Bellaria XLV

25 February

The satirist Lucian was born c. AD 115 in Samosata, a town on the Euphrates in Syria. Whatever his native language was (Aramaic?), all schools in that part of the Roman Empire taught Greek. He trained in rhetoric, practised as an advocate, spent time in Athens, Italy, Thrace and Gaul (apparently), became interested in philosophy and died c. AD 180.

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Bellaria XLIV

18 February

In his introduction, Pliny tells us that he consulted 2,000 volumes in the compilation of his Natural History, an extraordinary fact. It certainly reads like it. But he does not just repeat them: he occasionally disagrees with them – even with Aristotle - and is not backward in being forward about his own views on many of the matters they discuss.

For this last Bellaria on Pliny, I have selected some pieces that struck me as being of interest out of the astonishing 20,000 items he claims to have covered, surely a serious underestimate. But we start with the animal nearest in intelligence to man…

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Breastfeeding mother

Bellaria XLIII

11 Ferbruary

Last week Pliny explained how our immobile world was the ‘pivot’ around which the universe circulated, upholding everthing by its rotational movement, and described Earth as divine, a providential ‘Mother Nature’, the equivalent of god.

In Book 7, he turns to the animal world, starting at the top of the ladder with homo, ‘the human’, mankind, and suggests that, while nature produced everything for man’s sake, Nature may not have been so kindly in one aspect of man’s existence.

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map of the world 15th century

Bellaria XLII

4 February

Regarding Earth as a divinity, Pliny both praises her abundant goodness and mildness to man and condemns man for the way he treats her. As for the world, he insists it is a globe, and attempts by logic and analogy to explain to the uneducated why we do not fall off it, and other tricky problems.

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Bellaria XLI

28 January

This week's Bellaria examines the world, nature and the gods according to Pliny the Elder. Pliny accepts the Stoic view that the world is ‘divine’ but he associates that divinity closely with a vaguely pantheistic Nature, which seems to be some sort of innate force that makes things what they are. However, he argues that it is madness to speculate on any matters beyond this world. If a man does not even know himself, what is he doing trying to fathom other worlds? That way, he implies, hubris lies, man over-reaching himself on a question he could never resolve.

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Pliny the elder

Bellaria XL

21 January

This next sequence of Bellaria will look into the sole surviving work from the many that Gaius Plinius Secundus—Pliny the Elder—composed while on service during his long career in the Roman army and navy: his mighty Naturalis Historia in thirty-six books, plus one more, a preface with Index and sources to all 36 books.

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Bellaria XXXIX

14 January

Many will know of Colin Sydenham through his close association with the Horatian Society over many years, and thereby have come to know of his enviable skill at verse composition.They were originally composed as a challenge to a group of about twenty classical friends. Every few months a batch of five or six would arrive, and the job would be to identify the originals.

This Bellaria offers a taste of the delights on offer, with a concession to readers—i.e. a heading to each of the Latin versions—which was not on offer to the original readers. Each version is followed by its original, but separated on-screen by means of a relevant picture, far enough from the Latin to prevent instant peeping.

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Bellaria XXXVIII

17 December

Whatever translation of the Bible we hear over Christmas, there is much to be said for examining how Jerome latinized Matthew’s Greek, and how that was Englished by two important sources of our ‘original’ (cough) King James’ version.

Here, then, is St Matthew’s Christmas story in the pen of:

  • The Greek of St Matthew, c. AD 70 (via Erasmus, 1516)

  • The Latin Vulgate of St Jerome, c. 400

  • The Wessex Gospels, Old English West Anglo-Saxon dialect of Northumbria, c. 990

  • John Wycliffe, 1384

  • Willam Tyndale, 1526

  • King James, 1611

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Bellaria XXXVII

10 December

In the fifth and final part of the 'Medieval Latin' series, this week's Bellaria features a sequence of texts drawn from Keith Sidwell’s Reading Medieval Latin (Cambridge, 1995), which explore the dreams of Charlemagne - emperor of the (not) Holy (not) Roman (not) Empire - and the rules of courtly love according to Andreas Capellanus (fl. 1180) in de amore.

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Bellaria XXXVI

3 December

In the fourth part of the 'Medieval Latin' series, this week's Bellaria features a sequence of texts drawn from Keith Sidwell’s Reading Medieval Latin (Cambridge, 1995), which explore the lives and poetic works of early Christian figures, including St Ambrose, Bishop Ninian, and Alcuin of York, before taking a look at the Carmina Burana, a medieval manuscript of 228 poems dating back to the 11th and 12th centuries.

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thomas becket being murdered

Bellaria XXXV

26 November

In the third part of the 'Medieval Latin' series, this week's Bellaria features a sequence of texts drawn from Keith Sidwell’s Reading Medieval Latin (Cambridge, 1995), which explore the life and death of Thomas Becket, and the battle between church and state that his martyrdom represented. 

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Bellaria XXXIV

19 November

In the second part of the 'Medieval Latin' series, this week's Bellaria features a sequence of texts drawn from Keith Sidwell’s Reading Medieval Latin (Cambridge, 1995), which explore the year 1066 and the decisive Battle of Hastings, accompanied by scenes from the Bayeux tapestry.

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Medieval drawing of Bede

Bellaria XXXIII

12 November

The next few Bellaria will feature a sequence of texts drawn from Keith Sidwell’s Reading Medieval Latin (Cambridge, 1995). It is a teaching text, with 86 passages, prose and verse, from St Benedict (b. 480) to Nigel Whiteacre (b. 1130), a monk active at the time of Henry II and Richard Lionheart.

The texts are supported by full historical and cultural introductions and running vocabulary and grammatical help. It ends with a brief grammar (summarising the main differences from classical Latin), a note on orthography, and total vocabulary for the texts. Professor Sidwell has kindly translated, as literally as possible, the passages selected for this series of Bellaria.

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Roman mosaic of fish

Bellaria XXXII

5 November

In the fifth and final part of the 'Derivations' series, this Bellaria abandons the thematic approach and ranges randomly over words whose roots lie in Latin and Greek, and were taken into English.

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statue of the goddess hygieia

Bellaria XXXI

29 October

In the fourth part of the 'Derivations' series, this week's Bellaria ranges far and wide over the unexpected or not obvious derivations of those words taken into English whose roots lie in Latin and Greek.

As far as the West is concerned, Hippocrates (5th C BC, from Cos) invented the language of medicine - from prognosis to diagnosis, from phlegm to haemorrhoids. He was enormously famous in the ancient world and is regarded as the father of ‘rational’ medicine. All that means is that he attempted as best he could to use evidence and experience to analyse and explain illnesses rather than to regard them as incomprehensible divine visitations.

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Roman marble relief of augers at work

Bellaria XXX

22 October

In the third part of the 'Derivations' series, this week's Bellaria ranges far and wide over the unexpected or not obvious derivations of those words taken into English whose roots lie in Latin and Greek.

One of the reasons for the success of Christianity was that Christians worked within the political, social and cultural framework of paganism, slowly reconstructing it as Christian. For example, D.O.M. is often seen on Roman inscriptions: Deo Optimo Maximo ‘[dedicated to] God Greatest Best’, i.e. Jupiter, a very ancient form of address. Christians happily took it over, referring to the Christian deity.

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Chaucer accompanied by Latin text from the Middle Ages

Bellaria XXIX

15 October

In the second part of the 'Derivations' series, this week's Bellaria ranges far and wide over the unexpected or not obvious derivations of those words taken into English whose roots lie in Latin and Greek.

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Bellaria 28

Bellaria XXVIII

8 October

In the first part of the 'Derivations' series, this week's Bellaria ranges far and wide over the unexpected or not obvious derivations of those words taken into English whose roots lie in Latin and Greek.

It is worth reminding ourselves of the broader picture of how English, a Germanic language, came to be so richly infiltrated with Latin and Greek...

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Bellaria 27

Bellaria XXVII

1 October

There was a time when the ability to compose in Greek and Latin verse was seen as the ne plus ultra of the classical scholar.

This one-off Bellaria showcases the extensive work of two modern masters of the art, Colin Leach (Emeritus Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford) and Armand D’Angour (Jesus College, Oxford), and individual contributions from David Butterfield (Queen’s College, Cambridge) and Ronald Knox.

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Bellaria 26

Bellaria XXVI

24 September

The Greek pupil has now learned enough Latin from the Colloquia and the grammar to turn to the real thing. But the wind needs tempering to the young, if not shorn, lamb...

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Bellaria 25

Bellaria XXV

17 September

It was Dositheus himself, not the pseudo incarnation, who was the first person to ensure his Latin grammar was comprehensible to his Greek pupils and teachers alike by translating it into Greek.

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Roman Dinner Party

Bellaria XXIV

10 September

This sequence of Bellaria is drawn from Professor Eleanor Dickey’s definitive scholarly editions (CUP, 2012 and 2015), and her spin-offs from them, Learning Latin the Ancient Way (CUP, 2016), Stories of Daily Life from the Ancient World (CUP, 2017) and an elementary textbook Learn Latin from the Romans (CUP, 2018).

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Bellaria 23

Bellaria XXIII

3 August

This sequence of Bellaria is drawn from Professor Eleanor Dickey’s definitive scholarly editions (CUP, 2012 and 2015), and her spin-offs from them, Learning Latin the Ancient Way (CUP, 2016), Stories of Daily Life from the Ancient World (CUP, 2017) and an elementary textbook Learn Latin from the Romans (CUP, 2018).

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Bellaria 22

Bellaria XXII

27 August

The extraordinary ‘Conversations to be found in the Translations of Pseudo-Dositheus’ are manuals to help Greeks learn Latin, and Romans Greek. Rather like a Loeb text or a Teach Yourself Swahili, they do this by setting jolly conversational scenes from everyday life—in simple language side by side on the page, together with pronunciation tips, vocabulary lists, grammar exercises and so on.

Professor Eleanor Dickey (Reading University) has been almost single-handedly responsible for bringing these texts into the light of day for the 21st century. For this Bellaria sequence Professor Dickey has most generously provided the texts, with her translations, from her scholarly editions, and allowed me to make full use of her commentaries and material from her books.

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Bellaria 21

Bellaria XXI

20 August

This sequence of Bellaria has been broadly thematic. That is not quite fair to Martial the poet, each of whose books reveals an impressively unpredictable diversity of subject matter. In that sense, it has been likened to the experience of reading a newspaper: you never know what is going to hit you next.

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Bellaria 16

Bellaria XX

13 August

It would be unfair to Martial to give the impression that his epigrams are all cynicism, sarcasm and outright bile. It is clear he put considerable effort into ensuring that each of his books demonstrated a huge variety of subjects, styles and moods.

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Bellaria 19

Bellaria XIX

6 August

Martial mentions nearly fifty jobs of one sort or another – from actors, advocates, architects and astrologers through executioners and gladiators to teachers, snake-keepers and undertakers…

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Bellaria 18

Bellaria XVIII

30 July

Martial is famous for his filthy poems. Some have a genial behind-the-bike-sheds feel to them

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Bellaria 17

Bellaria XVII

23 July

Apologies in advance for the doggerel (per)versions. Prose translations of Martial don’t do it for me.

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Bellaria 16

Bellaria XVI

16 July

We shall now wake from the dreams of Artemidorus and turn our attention to the rapier wit of Rome’s most scabrous poet – none other than Martial.

To judge from his poetry (always a dodgy business with a poet): Marcus Valerius Martialis was a Spaniard with a good Roman name, like his parents Fronto and Flacilla (5.34). So presumably the family had at some stage in the past held office in the municipium where they lived (Augusta Bibilis, on a hill near modern Catalayud, 4.55) and as a result been given Roman citizenship.

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Bellaria 15

Bellaria XV

9 July

It is remarkable that the world of the Roman Empire rarely features in Artemidorus. Only two emperors – Hadrian and Antoninus Pius – are mentioned, and where emperors feature at all it is mostly as symbols and images.

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Bellaria 14

Bellaria XIV

02 July

Life in the ancient world was not sacrosanct, with little sympathy for the ill, crippled or mentally deficient. In this respect, it was a very unforgiving world.

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Bellaria 13

Bellaria XIII

25 June

For Artemidorus there was much more to a dream than its actual subject…

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Bellaria 12

Bellaria XII

18 June

Here Artemidorus describes the subjects of the dreams discussed in the first two of his (eventually) five books.

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Bellaria 11

Bellaria XI

11 June

Artimedorus from Daldis, near Ephesus, writing c. AD 200 was a professional interpreter of dreams. He composed his Interpretation of Dreams (henceforth ID, Oneirokritika in Greek) in five books, showing the beginner how it should be done.

This run of Bellaria will introduce supporters of Classics for All to this enthusiastic hero of the genre. By kind permission of Martin Hammond, we shall be using his fine new translation Artemidorus: ID (Oxford World’s Classics, 2020), with notes by Peter Thonemann (Wadham College, Oxford), whose superb An Ancient Dream Manual (Oxford 2020) gives a full and fascinating account of Artemidorus’ mighty opus.

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Bellaria 10

Bellaria X

4 June

This is the last of the extracts from Tom Holland’s first drafts of his forthcoming translation for Penguin. Classics for All is extremely grateful to Tom for allowing our supporters to peep into this work in progress and much looks forward to the finished article (summer 2021).

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Bellaria 9

Bellaria IX

28 May

Suetonius makes it clear that one important criterion of the ‘good emperor’ was the care he lavished on the city and people Rome, and another the moderation he exemplified in his own personal life. Augustus came out top in both…

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Bellaria 8

Belaria VIII

21 May

In this passage Suetonius, who had full access to the imperial library and its archives, quotes directly from three of Augustus’s letters on the matter of Claudius to his wife Livia. While Augustus is absolutely frank about the practical problem that Claudius (aged 21 at the time) presents for the imperial family, there is a touching humanity about his feelings for his great nephew.

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Bellaria 7

Bellaria VII

14 May

Suetonius, who wrote widely on literary and grammatical topics, here summaries his findings from examining Augustus’ formal and informal literary style, handwriting and spelling.

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Bellaria 6

Bellaria VI

7 May

Horace declared that books combining utile dulci won everyone’s vote (punctum). Since pleasure is the most useful thing in the world, that is no surprise, but Horace was clearly distinguishing the two. So in this case, ‘useful to whom?’ This run of Bellaria answers as follows: the historian Tom Holland.

Tom is currently translating Suetonius’ de vita Caesarum for Penguin Classics. Like Suetonius, he is thoroughly in favour of Classics for All, and would be delighted if CfA were to run the rule over his first draft (he is currently up to Vespasian). So the next five Bellaria will feature scenes from Suetonius in Tom’s translation. One of his stated aims is to keep as close as possible to Suetonius’ word-order.

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Bellaria 5

Bellaria V

30 April

Ausonius’ wife was Sabina. They had three children. Iuvenis and puella (l. 4) are the language of love-poetry. Ausonius envisages them growing old together, although his hopes of a long marriage were not fulfilled.

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Bellaria 4

Bellaria IV

23 April

Here is a magnificent single stanza poem from Petronius’ Satyricon, which is not what it seems.

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Bellaria 3

Bellaria III

16 April

Here Propertius (c. 50-15 BC), in a sort of post-coital haze, moves from monologue to dialogue and back again, shifting between past and present, hope and desire, as he recalls and reflects on a night of love-making.

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Bellaria 2

Bellaria II

9 April

Auberon Waugh, then editor of Literary Review, invented the now famous annual ‘Bad Sex’ Award ‘to draw attention to the crude, tasteless, often perfunctory use of redundant passages of sexual description in the modern novel’.

Given that C-19 means we are all apparently doomed, it is the socially responsible thing to encourage the population’s philoprogenitive urges. Classics for All’s series of Bellaria will therefore start with five scenes which would (probably) have won an ancient ‘Good Sex’ award…

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Zeus & Hera

Bellaria I

2 April

Auberon Waugh, then editor of Literary Review, invented the now famous annual ‘Bad Sex’ Award ‘to draw attention to the crude, tasteless, often perfunctory use of redundant passages of sexual description in the modern novel’.

Given that C-19 means we are all apparently doomed, it is the socially responsible thing to encourage the population’s philoprogenitive urges. Classics for All’s series of Bellaria will therefore start with five scenes which would (probably) have won an ancient ‘Good Sex’ award…

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Bellaria Complete Series

Bellaria Complete Series

All current instalments of Bellaria in one document.

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